Hydroponic is the modern method of cultivating crops without soil (especially vegetables). In hydroponic systems, crop production can be produced by supplying essential food to the trees instead of soil.
Vegetable cultivation is very popular in the developed world without soil. In many countries of the Middle East, earning hundreds of crores of rupees is being cultivated without the soil in the desert. In Bangladesh, this type of technology is not used for the cultivation of vegetables. But now technology has begun in different areas of the country started cultivation of vegetables without soil.
In this process, it is possible to produce vegetables and fruits all year round. Vegetables produced by this method and hence no pesticides are used. As a result, these vegetables agree with insects, insecticides, health and quality.
The crops which can be produced in hydroponic systems
The crops that can be cultivated in this manner are: 1 Leaf National Vegetable – Lettus, gimma palm, black coriander, cabbage etc. 2. Fruit vegetables – Tomato, brinjal, capsicum, broccoli, cauliflower, cucumber, gourd, melon, squash etc. 3. Fruit National – Strawberry 4. Flower Nation – Anthraum, Mage, Rose, Orchid, Jarbera, Chandramallika etc.
Crop Production In Hydroponic Method:
- Landless land is not needed in this method.
- In the hydroponic system, using plastic made of plastic boxes, the roof of the house, the house courtyard, the veranda and the crop in the open place can be produced.
- Because of this method, there are no soil borne diseases and wormwood diseases.
- In the controlled environment, crops can be cultivated all year round or in the oven.
- Because of this method, crop is produced in the controlled environment because insect attacks are less. As a result, it is possible to produce poisonous vegetables in this method.
- In this process, the crop is grown in small and large scale healthier and cleanly.
- In this process, production of profitable, economical and quality crops can be produced.
- This is an environmentally friendly method to produce non-potassium crops.
The disadvantage of this method :
- Hydroponic method requires expertise and experience in the preparation of the solution, the solubility and alkalinity of the electrodes, the electric conductivity (EC), the identification of the dysfunctional indigestion symptoms and the necessary measures.
- The cost of cultivating this method is that the net house or glasshouse is ever more expensive, so the initial cost is slightly higher.
- In this method the yield can be reduced due to the high temperature inside the net house or glasshouse.
- All types of crops can’t be cultivated in the hydroponic system.
- Technological knowledge, expertise, and experience in the cultivation of this method require special needs.
1. Circulating System:
In this method, the essential food components of the tree are mixed in a tank. Then pumps are used to produce crop by conducting nutrient solution in the tray with pipes. This transmission needs to be continued with at least 7 to 8 hours of pump per day. In this way primarily the first year of trays, pumps and pipes, the cost of fertilizer is slightly higher, but the cost of chemical food ingredients is required only from the next year. As a result, the cost will be reduced in the second year.
Procedure : In this process galvanizing iron trays are placed on a stand and attached to a tank with the help of a plastic pipe. The water from this tank is carried out in a hydraulic food mix of chemicals mixed with chemicals. The cork seat on the galvanizing iron tray is required for the distance required by the plant, such as lettuce 20 x 20cm, tomato 50 x 40cm and strawberry 30x30cm away. Proper seedling is to be placed in the hole with a sponge (sponge).
After transplanting the plant, the oxygen supply of the tree is increased by taking water at least 8-10 hours per day with the help of a water mix solution in the tray. At least 6-8 cm of water should be kept in the tray. Normally every 12-15 days to be added to the hydro solution. This method is kept in pH and EC levels for the production of vegetables.
Generally, pH for 5.8-6.5 is required for hydroponic production. If the pH level is above 7.0, then there is a lack of iron, manganese molybdenum, and other micro-nutrients. In this case, pH should be kept at a desired level with hydro-chloride acid (HCL) or phosphoric acid (HPO4) or nitric acid (HNO3). If the pH goes down more than 5.8 then pH should be controlled by NaOH or KOH. Through the EC, we know that the level of presence of food ingredients in the hydro solution must be kept in EC 1.5-2.5 ds / m. If the level of EC goes up to 2.5 ds / m, then pure water will be added. To adjust pH and EC every morning and afternoon.
2. Non-Circulating System:
In this method, direct crops are produced by supplying the essential food components of the tree in a tray at a moderate level. In this method, no pump or water is required to supply food. In this case, the mixture of mixing solution and the casket placed on it should be kept free of 5-7 cm area and 4-5 small holes on the casket should be made so that the air can move easily and the trees can collect from the empty space of its oxygen casket. Will be able to The type of crop is usually added to this food material tray 2-3 times a day. No electric motors, pumps or pipes are required in this method. Following this method, interested farmers can easily produce vegetables in the roof, veranda and open places, using plastic bucket, water bottles, clay etc., etc. The cost will be relatively low.
Hydroponic system warns in crop production
For the hydroponic method successfully, the following factors should be closely monitored for crop production. The topics are-
Generally, the levels of pH of 5.8-6.5 and EC should be between 1.5-2.5 ds / m. The roots of the tree will be severely damaged after the specified levels go out. Suddenly the hydro food solution can’t be changed to PH and EC.
It is understood by the requirements of the plant’s food ingredients, the shortness, or the health and leaf color of the excessive plant. Understand the symptoms of food ingredients and add to it as needed, remove the deficiencies. For this, there must be sufficient knowledge of the lack of symptoms of each element.
In Hydroponic Systems the ideal temperature of the solution should be maintained. Usually, the temperature of the solution should be between 25-30C. If the respiration rate of the solution temperature rises and the demand for oxygen increases greatly. As a result, the oxygen content of the solution will be reduced. Generally, the temperature will rise at noon, so at this time the necessary measures will be taken to reduce the temperature.
Extra oxygen supply will be provided in the hydro food solution. Because of the lack of oxygen, the root of the tree gets wasted and the yield is severely reduced.
Sufficient lighting should be done at the place of cultivation and use of disease-free seedlings. It is necessary to remove it immediately after seeing any diseased tree.
Various insect-spider attacks may occur in cultivated crops. Among them, Edif, Leaf Miner, Thrips and Spider are one of them. By taking regular observation, the pest control must be taken.